Despite marked improvement in child undernutrition, especially stunting, in Nepal over the past decade, stunting prevalence remains high at 41% thus generating an urgent need to understand factors associated with childhood stunting.
The earthquake that hit Nepal in April, 2015, caused considerable structural damage and loss of life but little is known about the longer term impacts of the earthquake on nutritional status of preschool children and related risk factors. This analysis provides the first systematic national estimate of the nutritional situation in Nepal following the earthquake.
Anemia through pregnancy is highly correlated with poor birth outcomes, especially low birth weight (LBW). The Nepal DHS 2011 reports prevalence of anemia in pregnant women at 48%.
Rates of weight gain in pregnancy are associated with infant weight for age, length for age and weight for length and are predictive of postnatal growth at 6 months of age. The study examines factors linked with low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) in pregnant women in Banke Nepal.
Design and Baseline Characteristics of a Study Comparing Four Supplementary Foods in the Prevention of Stunting and Wasting Among Children 6-23 Months in Burkina Faso
The Food Aid Quality Review (FAQR), a study implemented by Tufts University, recommended improvements in the formulations and programming of existing Title II supplementary foods. To test these recommendations, we are examining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of four different supplementary foods in the prevention of stunting and wasting in children age 6 to 23 months in Burkina Faso. The objective of this report is to describe the study methods and baseline characteristics of the sample, including baseline measures of stunting and wasting.
Aflatoxins are harmful to animals and humans. Much is unknown about the determinants of aflatoxin exposure, and how specific agricultural practices may lead to, or help limit, food contamination and diet exposure. Based on prior studies, chronic consumption of aflatoxins may be a public health concern in Nepal.
High levels of food insecurity were observed among HIV, TB, and HIV/TB co-infected outpatients in northern Uganda
Food insecurity among individuals living with HIV is well-recognized globally. Since comorbidity with TB is common, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, we examined the variation in the severity of food insecurity among people with either infection or both concurrently.
HIV infection is associated with a lower rate of gestational weight gain and reduced neonatal length
Adequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and neonatal growth are important, respectively, for favorable birth outcomes and survival of infants through the first year. In sub-Saharan Africa, underlying infections, such as HIV, may adversely impact GWG and neonatal growth.
HIV-Infected Pregnant and Lactating Women have Higher Serum Aflatoxin levels than HIV-Uninfected Women and Aflatoxin Levels are Higher during Early Postpartum than during Pregnancy among HIV-Infected Women
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic and may affect linear growth. Prior cross-sectional data from Ghana have shown that aflatoxin levels are ~ 20% higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected post-partum women. It is not known if HIV-infected pregnant women have elevated serum aflatoxin levels during pregnancy, or if aflatoxin levels change during the perinatal period. We therefore studied these relationships among a cohort of 246 women recruited in Gulu, Uganda, and followed through pregnancy and early infant life.
Perinatal Exposure to Aflatoxins is Associated with a Lower Rate of Weight Gain Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Reduced Linear Growth of HIV-Exposed Infants
Aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogens associated with poor linear growth in infants. AF serum levels have been reported to be higher in HIV infected (+) women. However, it is not known if maternal AF exposure affects gestational weight gain (GWG), or if relationship between in utero AF exposure and changes in perinatal anthropometry differs by maternal HIV or infant HIV exposure status. We enrolled 403 pregnant women (33.3% HIV (+), all on anti-retroviral treatment) at the antenatal clinic of Gulu Hospital, northern Uganda.