With more than 820 million undernourished people living in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), ending hunger and ensuring access to food by all is a global priority. In the past few decades, the adoption of technological innovations in the agricultural sector and related crop yield improvements have not led to expected improvements in the nutritional status of rural households in many LMICs. The increased energy expenditure associated with the adoption of productivity-enhancing innovations may provide an important explanation of the disconnect between agricultural productivity enhancements and improved nutritional outcomes. We develop a methodology for generating reliable livelihood energy/calorie expenditure profiles for rural agricultural households using research-grade accelerometer devices. We integrate the data on physical activity and energy expenditure in rural households with data on time-use and food intakes to generate a data set that provides a unique window into rural livelihoods. This can be a valuable resource to analyse agriculture-nutrition impact pathways and improve the welfare of rural and agricultural households.