Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal

The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables. The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 %, 13 % and 76 %, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and Zn. The MPA across eleven micronutrients was 0·19 (sd 0·16). The diet was found to be monotonous (MDDS was 3·9 (sd 1·0)) and rice contributed to about 60 % of the energy intake. The multiple regression analyses showed that MPA was positively associated with energy intake, dietary diversity, women's educational level and socio-economic status, and was higher in the winter.

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