Fawzi, Wafaie

Engagement in agriculture protects against food insecurity and malnutrition in peri-urban Nepal

Publication Type

Urbanization is occurring rapidly in many low- and middle-income countries, which may affect households’ livelihoods, diet, and food security and nutritional outcomes.

The main objective of our study was to explore whether agricultural activity amongst a peri-urban population in Nepal was associated with better or worse food household security, household and maternal dietary diversity, and nutritional outcomes for children and women.

Infant Nutritional Status and Markers of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction are Associated with Midchildhood Anthropometry and Blood Pressure in Tanzania

Publication Type

Children who participated in 2 randomized trials micronutrient supplements in infancy were followed up in midchildhood (4.6-9.8 years of age). Anthropometry was measured at age 6 and 52 weeks in both trials, and blood samples were available from children at 6 weeks and 6 months from 1 trial. Linear regression was used for height-for-age z-score, body mass index-for-age z-score, and weight for age z-score, and blood pressure analyses; log-binomial models were used to estimate risk of overweight, obesity, and stunting in midchildhood.

Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is positively associated with development and cognitive functioning 5 years later in Nepalese children

We measured the associations between vitamin B-12 status in infancy (2-12 mo) and the development and cognitive functioning in Nepalese children 5 y later. Vitamin B-12 status was assessed in infancy with the use of plasma cobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA). At 5 y of age, we measured development with the use of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (ASQ- 3), and cognitive functioning by using the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd edition (NEPSY II), in 320 children.

Erythrocyte fatty acid composition of Nepal breast-fed infants

Publication Type

Essential fatty acids play a critical role in the growth and development of infants, but little is known about the fatty acid status of populations in low-income countries. The objective was to describe the fatty acid composition of red blood cells (RBC) in breastfeed Nepali infants and a subsample of their mothers and to identify the main sources of fatty acids in the mother?s diet, as well as the fatty acid composition of breast milk.

Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal

Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B6, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants.

The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal

Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal

Publication Type

The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables. The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 %, 13 % and 76 %, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and Zn.

Iron deficiency is uncommon among lactating women in urban Nepal, despite a high risk of inadequate dietary iron intake

Publication Type

The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. Dietary information was obtained through three interactive 24h recall interviews including personal recipes. Concentrations of Hb and plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors were measured.